Annotated Bibliography- Final Draft

Blau, Max “Can Anyone Stop Atlanta’s Rapid Gentrification?” Creative Loafing Atlanta. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Mar. 2017.

Atlanta is said to be the leading city for rates of gentrification. Records show that rates have increased from 8.6 percent to 20 percent that is more than double the average rate. Some reasons given is that there is a growth in education levels, infrastructure investments, and housing prices. The change in education levels shows that new people are moving into those areas, and native residents are not developing their incomes to meet those of the newcomers. Atlanta has been largely made up of African-Americans, and now the neighborhoods are becoming whiter. The spokeswoman for Mayor Kasim Reed says that the officials are combating the gentrification by employing the right developers to boost its workforce housing stock. But the argument comes in because gentrification leads to higher property values with means more tax revenues for the government. And with more money, the city can spend more money on its citizens. For example the Beltline and Streetcar. This article provides great support for how residential segregation and architecture work together. Specifically to exemplify how political agendas and history can affect the built environment.

Atlanta Gentrification, 2000-present
Atlanta Gentrification, 1990-2000

Bullard, Robert D., and Johnson, Glenn S., and Torres, Angel O. “{Complete Report} The State of Black Atlanta 2010.” N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Mar. 2017.

This article provides a very different perspective of the black community and the black community within Atlanta. It explains how Atlanta is known as the “Black Mecca”. It is rated one of the best cities for African Americans. It is one of the top 3 cities for black travelers. It also has the most HBCUs. It is also the fastest growing millionaire population in the U.S. It does mention the poverty rate and states it is in the top 3 of 101 cities with most of it people below the 50% poverty level. This is why it is referred to as a Paradox. It also discusses how Atlanta has a wide black-white unemployment gap. The authors say that place matters, where a person lives is an indicator for high or low environmental health risks. Location dictates access to healthcare and residential amenities like grocery stores, farmer’s markets. Wealthier areas have access to three times as many grocery stores, and low-income people pay 10-40 cents more for food than higher income residents. This source gives the opposing side of all the benefits blacks in Atlanta have as well as some additional information to show the oppression and segregation.

Collins, Chiquita A., and David R. Williams. “Segregation and Mortality: The Deadly Effects of Racism?” Sociological Forum 14.3 (1999): 495–523. Web. 28 Mar. 2017.

Racism is a key factor for the development of segregation and how it has now shaped the world today. The article states that whites believe blacks promote violence, are not hard working or intelligent, and are not self-supporting. These stereotypes have been the basis for separation and when one combines this information with present day maps like in the previous citation. The stereotypes create a trickle effect for the blacks and minority people. The article goes on to explain how because of the slander and isolation blacks suffer economic inequality. Without the income, people are forced to live in more affordable areas that are filled with poverty inadequate school systems and limited transportation that do not allow people to better themselves. This source is extremely detailed in its explanations of racial segregation and inequality. For example, because structural segregation leads to social problems it brings down the morale and values that are necessary for success, and now these neighborhoods are lacking good work ethic and formal education that in turn creates and endless cycle of poverty.

The Editorial Board. “The Architecture of Segregation.” The New York Times 5 Sept. 2015. Web. 11 Mar. 2017.

The New York Times released an editorial in the Sunday Review that highlights the facts of poverty in low-income and minority neighborhoods. It discusses the Fair Housing Act of 1968 and how it was put in place to alleviate inequality when it comes to housing. The Act was supposed to encourage fairness but was not taken seriously by lawmakers and was, in fact, causing more disparities between communities of lower income versus those with higher income. This article can be used as an excellent illustration of how the government fails to make a real difference. In conjunction with Architectural Exclusion, this piece can make a compelling point on how architecture and segregation affect minorities.  A weakness in this article is that it does not have references, so it is hard to tell where the author is getting its information. Overall, the piece does present a healthy debate that can be used to support how the built environment influences racism.

Gradín, Carlos, Coral Del Río, and Olga Alonso-Villar. “Occupational Segregation by Race and Ethnicityin the United States: Differences Across States.” Regional Studies 49.10 (2015): 1621. Web.

In the article, “Occupational Segregation by Race and Ethnicity in the United States: Differences Across States” discusses the inequality within professions across the United States. The authors use the results from the 2005-07 American Community Survey. The findings of the study show that based on geographic location, there is a difference in occupational discrimination. The goal is to try and see if there is a pattern among states. For example, the findings suggest that when there is higher segregation, then there are less white people in an area. The more segregation, the more diversity within a state. This article ties into the built environment because it shows examples from all over the United States and not just one city. This article can also be useful because it ties into the article about residential segregation. They can both be used as evidence to support one another’s argument and the argument on the influence of the built environment.

Handy, Susan L. et al. “How the Built Environment Affects Physical Activity.” American Journal of Preventive Medicine 23.2 (2002): 64–73. Web. 6 Mar. 2017.

Doctors from the University of California have conducted research to see how the built environment can affect physical activity. The article highlights how the design, land patterns and transportation systems can either promote or negate walking and exercise to make healthier communities. This article can be helpful to support how the built environment affects everyday life. To accurately measure the effects of the built environment the authors break the environment down into dimensions and use the concepts and methods from urban planners. The five dimensions used are density and intensity of development, a mix of land uses, connectivity of the street networks, the scale of streets, and aesthetic qualities of a place. This article can be utilized together with the previous article by Harrison and Spielman to make a strong argument on the multiple effects the built environment has on society.

Schindler, Sarah. “Architectural Exclusion: Discrimination and Segregation Through Physical Design of the Built Environment.” Yale Law Journal 124.6 (2015): 1934–2024. Web. 6 Mar. 2017.

Sarah Schindler is a Professor of Law at the University of Maine; she brings awareness to how architecture and city planning have worked as forms of regulation to keep people in or out of certain areas. She calls out lawmakers and legislators because they do not consider architecture as a kind of control. She uses examples of bridge designs, highways, and transportation systems as evidence. In part I of her article she focuses on exactly how the built environment regulates behaviors and in part II she gives examples of actions taken by police, residents, and politicians that have further divided cities. In comparison to the citation about Residential segregation, both articles are very similar because they aim to prove how the built environment has affected and even caused division within cities and communities but Architectural exclusion is directed towards the law.

Spielman, Seth, and Patrick Harrison. “The Co-Evolution of Residential Segregation and the Built Environment at the Turn of the 20th Century: A Schelling Model.” Transactions in GIS 18.1 (2014): 25–45. Web. 6 Mar. 2017.

Seth Spielman from the Department of Geography at the University of Colorado and Patrick Harrison from the University of Virginia author a research article. The article is called, “The Co-evolution of Residential Segregation and the Built Environment at the turn of the 20th Century: A Schelling Model” The article discusses how the decentralization of cities has affected economic and residential segregation. To do this, the authors have developed a Schelling model and used the information from the GIS that shows the population of Newark, NJ in 1880 and used that information to recreate a model to show the changes from then and now. Their results state that changes in residential segregation can be due to the built environment. This article can be useful as evidence to support how the built environment has affected race relations.

Williams Reid, Lesley, and Robert M. Adelman. “The Double-edged Sword of Gentrification in Atlanta.” The Double-edged Sword of Gentrification in Atlanta. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Mar.    2017.

The article “The Double-edged Sword of Gentrification in Atlanta” by Lesley Williams Reid and Robert M. Adelman, professors at Georgia State University discuss the reasons for gentrification in Atlanta. Atlanta does not have physical barriers like mountains or lakes to contain its growth, so it continues to grow. This leaves more space and opportunity to rebuild and create new developments.  This article opposes the view of “The Co-evolution of Residential Segregation and the Built Environment at the turn of the 20th Century: A Schelling Model” because it talks about how the growth of suburban life consequently increases the growth of the inner city. Areas like East Lake, East Atlanta, and Kirkwood are close to the city. They have historic housing, and the residents are getting older, so there are chances for redevelopments. But in addition to property values, are the occupants of those residences. African Americans were the primary people in East Atlanta, East Lake, and Kirkwood but are now being kicked out because the whites are moving back in and raising the cost of living. The solutions are to implement affordable housing policies for low-income residents, give incentives to build, and turn foreclosure homes and properties into affordable housing. This article provides more detail and evidence about the backgrounds of property value and race relations.

VanHemert, Kyle “The Best Map Ever Made of America’s Racial Segregation.” WIRED. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Mar. 2017.

The article, “The Best Map Ever Made of America’s Racial Segregation” by Kyle VanHemert points out the racial disparities in cities across the United States. The map was made by Dustin Cable at the University of Virginia. He uses the information from the 2010 Census to make these maps. The maps are color coded by dots, and each dot represents one person. Blue dots represent white people, African-Americans are shown with green, Asians are shown with red, Latinos are orange, and all other races are shown with brown. It is the first map to show both the country’s ethnic distribution and every single citizen at the same time. The article then goes on to explain the distributions within different cities. The maps allow you to see and make comparisons about racial distribution among the various cities. In the map of Atlanta, there is a clear division of whites and blacks, and this can be used to show how, although by law we are not segregated,  when one looks at the map there is still racial division especially in the south. This source will serve as a great visual example of the divisions.

Atlanta, Georgia
Birmingham, Alabama

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