Annotated Bibliography

The New York Times released an editorial in the Sunday Review that highlights the facts of poverty in low-income and minority neighborhoods. It discusses the Fair Housing Act of 1968 and how it was put in place to alleviate inequality when it comes to housing. The Act was supposed to encourage fairness but was not taken seriously by lawmakers and was, in fact, causing more disparities between communities of lower income versus those with higher income. This article can be used as an excellent illustration of how the government fails to make a real difference. In conjunction with Architectural Exclusion, this piece can make a compelling point on how architecture and segregation affect minorities.  A weakness in this article is that it does not have references, so it is hard to tell where the author is getting its information. Overall, the piece does present a healthy debate that can be used to support how the built environment influences racism.

The Editorial Board. “The Architecture of Segregation.” The New York Times 5 Sept. 2015. Web. 11 Mar. 2017.

In the article, “Occupational Segregation by Race and Ethnicity in the United States: Differences Across States” discusses the inequality within professions across the United States. The authors use the results from the 2005-07 American Community Survey. The findings of the study show that based on geographic location, there is a difference in occupational discrimination. The goal is to try and see if there is a pattern among states. This article ties into the built environment because it shows examples from all over the United States and not just one city. This article can also be useful because it ties into the article about residential segregation. They can both be used as evidence to support one another’s argument and the argument on the influence of the built environment.

Gradín, Carlos, Coral Del Río, and Olga Alonso-Villar. “Occupational Segregation by Race and Ethnicityin the United States: Differences Across States.” Regional Studies 49.10 (2015): 1621. Web.

Doctors from the University of California have conducted research to see how the built environment can affect physical activity. The article highlights how the design, land patterns and transportation systems can either promote or negate walking and exercise to make healthier communities. This article can be helpful to support how the built environment affects everyday life. To accurately measure the effects of the built environment the authors break the environment down into dimensions and use the concepts and methods from urban planners. The five dimensions used are density and intensity of development, a mix of land uses, connectivity of the street networks, the scale of streets, and aesthetic qualities of a place. This article can be utilized together with the previous article by Harrison and Spielman to make a strong argument on the multiple effects the built environment has on society.

Handy, Susan L. et al. “How the Built Environment Affects Physical Activity.” American Journal of Preventive Medicine 23.2 (2002): 64–73. Web. 6 Mar. 2017.

Sarah Schindler is a Professor of Law at the University of Maine; she brings awareness to how architecture and city planning have worked as forms of regulation to keep people in or out of certain areas. She calls out lawmakers and legislators because they do not consider architecture as a kind of control. She uses examples of bridge designs, highways, and transportation systems as evidence. In part I of her article she focuses on exactly how the built environment regulates behaviors and in part II she gives examples of actions taken by police, residents, and politicians that have further divided cities. In comparison to the citation about Residential segregation, both articles are very similar because they aim to prove how the built environment has affected and even caused division within cities and communities but Architectural exclusion is directed towards the law.

Schindler, Sarah. “Architectural Exclusion: Discrimination and Segregation Through Physical Design of the Built Environment.” Yale Law Journal 124.6 (2015): 1934–2024. Web. 6 Mar. 2017.

Seth Spielman from the Department of Geography at the University of Colorado and Patrick Harrison from the University of Virginia author a research article. The article is called, “The Co-evolution of Residential Segregation and the Built Environment at the turn of the 20th Century: A Schelling Model” The article discusses how the decentralization of cities has affected economic and residential segregation. To do this, the authors have developed a Schelling model and used the information from the GIS that shows the population of Newark, NJ in 1880 and used that information to recreate a model to show the changes from then and now. Their results state that changes in residential segregation can be due to the built environment. This article can be useful as evidence to support how the built environment has affected race relations.

Spielman, Seth, and Patrick Harrison. “The Co-Evolution of Residential Segregation and the Built Environment at the Turn of the 20th Century: A Schelling Model.” Transactions in GIS 18.1 (2014): 25–45. Web. 6 Mar. 2017.

 

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